Abstract: ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Ẓāhir (1833-1896) was an inuential, dynamic Hadhrami. He was a Muslim reformer, as well as a savvy businessman and formidable diplomat. Arriving in Aceh in 1864, he embarked on both business and political endeavors, as religious and trade experiences helped develop diplomatic ties between the locals, the Ottomans, and the European powers. Although he surrendered in 1878 to the Dutch, his activities and inuence were increasingly common subjects for diﬀerent colonial newspapers until the middle of the 20th century. is article reexamines al-Ẓāhir’s political role and his various interactions with Acehnese royal contends. It investigates his interactions with the Aceh court, the uleebalang, and the Dutch, as well as the socio-political environment that informed his surrender to the Dutch. rough investigations of numerous Ottoman, Dutch and indigenous sources, this article oﬀers a glimpse into the reality of the indigenous responses to the decisions of this most trusted Hadhrami.
Keywords: ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Ẓāhir, Aceh, Dutch War, Perang Sabil, İstanbul, Ottomans.